Iraqi Journal of Market Research and Consumer Protection 2022-01-26T05:20:00+00:00 Prof. Dr. Mohammed A. Alsoufi Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Scientific refereed journal, accredited for the purposes of scientific promotions, issued by the market research and consumer protection center, university of Baghdad, Iraq with two numbers a year, publishes scientific research in the fields of social sciences directly related to the market and consumer and in the field of several including&nbsp;</strong><strong>public health,&nbsp;</strong><strong>marketing, Economics, Environment, Agriculture, Pure Sciences, and Information</strong></p> ENHANCE THE QUALITATIVE SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF BOVINE MILK BY USING (Hibiscus sabdariffa) 2021-12-23T06:37:48+00:00 Doaa A. Qasim <p><strong>Bovine milk is one of the richest nutrients that contain minerals and vitamins that enhance immunity, especially in children, but because many children do not want to drink the raw milk, therefore this study aimed to enhance the sensory characteristics of raw milk by using hibiscus plant extract, which is characterized by red color and distinctive flavor as well as studying the effect of aqueous extract of <em>Hibiscus sabdariffa</em> on inhibiting the growth of microorganisms, by using three concentrations of the aqueous extract (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%), where the statistical results showed a significant difference (P≤0.05) between the concentrations in color, texture and general acceptance, and the best results appeared when using a concentration of 1.0%, while the results showed an insignificant difference in flavor values with different concentrations of the extract added to milk, Because the hibiscus plant, it is considered an acidic plant, which affected the degree of acceptance of the product. As for the inhibition of the growth of microorganisms, the results showed that the growth of microorganisms was inhibited after keeping in refrigeration for 24 hours, where the growth of the total number of bacteria was inhibited to (6 × 10<sup>-7</sup>), while we note a decrease in colon bacteria to (2 ×10<sup>-6</sup>) either Fecal coliform bacteria, the result showed a decrease in numbers to (2×10<sup>-4</sup>), then was noticed a slight decrease in numbers continuously after incubation for 7 days in the refrigerator, where the results showed a decrease in the total number of bacteria (1×10<sup>-7</sup>) and coliform bacteria (1×10<sup>-6</sup>) while for fecal coliform was (1×10<sup>-4</sup>).</strong></p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 ADSORPTION POTENTIAL FOR A MIXTURE OF CHEMICALLY AND THERMALLY TREATED CLAYS TO REMOVE ORANGE G DYE FROM WASTE-WATER 2021-12-23T06:48:05+00:00 Saba A. Saeed Dunya E. AL-Mammar <p><strong>This study examined the adsorption behavior of anionic dye (orange G) from aqueous solution onto the raw and activated a mixture of illite, kaolinite and chlorite clays from area of Zorbatiya (east of Iraq).The chemical treatment involved alkali and acid activation. The alkali activation obtained by treated the raw clay (RC) with 5M NaOH (ACSO) and the acid activation founded by treated it with 0.25M HCl (ACH) and 0.25M </strong> <strong>&nbsp;(ACS). The thermal treatment carried out by calcination the produce activated clay at 750</strong><strong><sup>o</sup></strong><strong>C</strong><strong> for acid activation and 105</strong><strong><sup>o</sup></strong><strong>C</strong><strong> for alkali activation. Batch </strong><strong>adsorption method was used to study the adsorption of orange G dye onto raw and activated clays. </strong><strong>The impact of different factors related to the adsorption process was studied such as: agitation time, clay dosage, solution pH, starting OG dye concentration, temperature and ionic strength. The adsorption process was described by using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Raduchkevish isotherm models. Thermodynamic functions like change in enthalpy</strong> <strong>, change in entropy </strong> <strong>&nbsp;and change in Gibbs free energy </strong> <strong>were estimated based on Vanʼt Hoff equation. </strong></p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 THEEXPOSURE OF BAGHDAD SLUM RESIDENTS TO TELEVISION DRUG ADVERTISEMENTS AND ITS TRENDS 2021-12-23T07:06:18+00:00 Hussein, J. Jaber <p><strong>The advancement of science and technology in recent years has led to heavy and diversified production and thus market congestion in various goods and services; which led to an increase of competition among advertisers in order to meet the needs and wishes and to upgrade to the level of consumers. These upgrades have imposed an increase in the usage of the promotions, including advertising in terms of quantity and quality, to influence and persuade customers innovatively and creatively using all available mass media. </strong></p> <p><strong>The research aims to identify the attitudes of residents of poor areas towards television advertisements for medicines, and the impact of those advertisements on them in terms of making purchase decisions. To achieve the objectives of the research, a stratified random sample (cluster sampling) was selected based on data and statistics taken from the Ministry of Planning (Central Statistical Organization) according to the criteria (governorate, district, district, alley) with a size of 482 males and females. The research has reached a set of results, the most important of which is that 73% of the surveyed sample confirmed that they took slimming drugs, which were identified through television advertisements, and that 54.6% of the sample confirmed that they sometimes believe in what is said about the capabilities of drugs that are announced on screens. TV</strong>.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 ULATRAVIOLET ABSORBANCE SEPECTRA FOR ANTIBIOTIC DERIVATIVES (AMINO GLYCOSIDES) USED IN MEDICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY 2022-01-03T16:50:40+00:00 Anud M. A. Efhema1 Ziadan J. Khalaf2 <p><strong>Ultraviolet spectrophotometric studies for antibiotic (amino glycoside) derivatives including, <em>Neomycin</em>, <em>Streptomycin</em>, <em>Gentamycin </em>and <em>Kanamycin </em>with special reagents, which are benzoyl chloride; benzene sulfonyl chloride, toluenesulfonyl chloride and phthalic anhydride were made.<em> Amino glycosides </em>derivatives were followed through measurements of the ultraviolet absorbance (A) from which the absorptivity (</strong><strong>ε</strong><strong>) of the complexes was deduced and molar absorbances using Ultraviolet for products and calculate the number of reagents molecule that combine to amino glycosides.</strong></p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 IMPACT OF COMBINATION OF FENUGREEK SEEDS (Nigella sativa), LAURELS LEAVE (Laurus nobilis) AND VITAMIN C ON SOME EGG QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF QUAIL 2022-01-03T17:14:37+00:00 Hamdia, M. S. Al-Hamdani1 Nadia N. Al-Hajo2 Akeel A. Sh. Al Mjbel3 Ammar S. Abdulwahid4 <p><strong>The results of the study showed the statistical significant difference (P≥0.05) for each of the relative weight of the yolk and egg whites, the relative weight of the shell and the Hauh unit, which is affected positively by the addition of ground fenugreek seed and Laurels leave to the quail bird's diet. There is also a statistically significant difference positively for each of the percentage of ash, protein and carbohydrates for qualis egg, while there is no significant difference for both the percentage of moisture and fat. The results of the mineral estimation showed an increase in each of the elements of iron, copper and cadmium from the addition of fenugreek and laurels leave, while there was no significant difference for the lead element. The results also showed an increase in the percentage of unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic, linoleic and linolenic, and a decrease in the proportions of saturated fatty acids. In addition, the results of the sensory evaluation of boiled quail eggs presented to the evaluators showed high acceptance in terms of color, flavor, taste and general appearance of all additives and their high conformity from the control sample.</strong></p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF VORTEX GENERATOR ON THE FLAT-PLATE BOUNDARY LAYER 2022-01-03T17:24:07+00:00 Abbas F. Mahmood <p><strong>This paper is dealing with an experimental study to show the influence of the geometric characteristics of the vortex generators </strong><strong>VG son the thickness of the boundary layer (∂) and drag coefficients (C<sub>D</sub>) of the flat plate. Vortex generators work effectively on medium and high angles of attack, since they are "hidden" under the boundary layer and practically ineffective at low angles.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The height of VGs relative to the thickness of the boundary layer enables us to study the efficacy of VGs in delaying boundary layer separation. The distance between two VGs also has an effect on the boundary layer if we take into account the interference between two pairs of VGs. The effect of the changing in (h- the height of vortex generator, d- the average distance between tow vortex generators) on the thickness of the flat plate boundary layer and the drag coefficients has been studied for triangular vortex generator. The measurements of the vortex generator have been changed to determine the optimum boundary layer thickness and the change in drag coefficients. An experiment was done at an average free stream velocity, (U<sub>∞</sub>,) of 28 m/s. The experiment was conducted in the wind tunnel UTAD-2 University (NAU) Kiev, Ukraine.</strong></p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF CHITOSAN EXTRACTED FROM THE MUSHROOM ON THE EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED HYPERLIPIDEMIA IN MALE RABBITS 2022-01-04T09:06:41+00:00 Ibrahim K. H. Aldulimy1 Asmaa H. Shaker2 Fahad K. Y Al-dulaimi3 <p><strong>The present study aimed to identify the therapeutic evaluation of chitosan extracted from the fungus cushroom and pure chitosan on glucose and lipid profile in the blood of 35 male rabbits with hyperlipidemia induced experimentally by cholesterol. The tests included estimation of glucose levels, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and very low-density lipoproteins. hyperlipidemia was induced in the male rabbits used in the study which was administered orally with cholesterol 150mg/kg body weight for a week. rabbits were divided into seven groups: control, cholesterol, pure chitosan, mushroom chitosan, cholesterol and pure chitosan, cholesterol and mushroom chitosan and cholesterol and </strong><strong>simvastatin</strong><strong>. The results of the study showed, the hyperlipidemia induced experimentally resulted a significant increase (P&lt;0.05) in TC, TG, LDL, and VLDL, while no significant difference in HDL compared with control group, on the otherwise the glucose level significantly increase than control. Also, groups of animals treatment with pure chitosan and mushroom chitosan showed a significant decrease (P&lt;0.05) in glucose, TC, TG, LDL, and VLDL, and no significant difference in HDL compared with control group. While, the groups showed treatment with cholesterol and pure chitosan, cholesterol and mushroom chitosan, cholesterol and</strong><strong> simvastatin</strong><strong> a significant decrease (P&lt;0.05) in glucose, TC, TG, LDL, and VLDL, and a significant increase (P&lt;0.05) in HDL compared with the cholesterol group. The research study revealed that chitosan extracted from </strong><strong>mushroom can control the levels of fat concentrations and their complications, in addition to its important role in biochemical variables, and treatment of most disease cases, especially cardiovascular disease.</strong></p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 GEOMETRY OPTIMIZATION OF COUPLING ALLIN -METFORMIN USING DFT/B3LYP MOLECULAR MODELLING TECHNIQUE 2022-01-04T09:29:16+00:00 Lekaa H. Kadhum <p><strong>This&nbsp;researchpaper&nbsp;includes&nbsp;the&nbsp;incorporation&nbsp;of&nbsp;Alliin&nbsp;at&nbsp;various&nbsp;energy&nbsp;levels&nbsp;and&nbsp;angles&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>With Metformin&nbsp;using&nbsp;Gaussian&nbsp;09&nbsp;and&nbsp;Gaussian view 06. Two computers were used in this work. Samples were&nbsp;generated&nbsp;to&nbsp;draw,&nbsp;integrate,&nbsp;simulate&nbsp;and&nbsp;measure&nbsp;the value of the&nbsp;potential&nbsp;energy&nbsp;surface by means&nbsp;of&nbsp;which&nbsp;the&nbsp;lowest&nbsp;energy&nbsp;value&nbsp;was&nbsp;(-1227.408au). The&nbsp;best&nbsp;correlation&nbsp;compound&nbsp;was achieved between&nbsp;Alliin&nbsp;and&nbsp;Metformin through the low energy values where the best place for metformin to bind was through (CH<sub>2</sub>-).&nbsp; This is considered&nbsp;to&nbsp;be&nbsp;very&nbsp;useful&nbsp;for&nbsp;the&nbsp;industrial&nbsp;application&nbsp;of&nbsp;drugs.</strong></p> <p><strong>This level of calculation was used for physical and quantum properties such as total energy, HOMO and LUMO orbitals energies, and power gap. Besides, the calculation of FT-IR spectra in the range 400-4000 cm-1 was calculated in addition to the essential vibrational frequencies and the intensity of the vibrational bands.</strong><strong> Moreover, the chemical displacement of the <sup>1</sup>H and <sup>13</sup>C NMR of the </strong><strong>compound</strong><strong> in the ground state was studied.</strong></p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW β-LACTAM DERIVATVE FROM SULFADIAZINE DRUG BY MANY STEPS 2022-01-09T09:56:30+00:00 Radhiyah A. Aldujaili Ezzat H. Zimam <p><strong>This research involved synthesis of new</strong><strong> β-Lactam</strong><strong> derivative from Azo compound[4-amino-N-(pyrimidine-2-yl)-3-(pyrimidine-2-yldiazenyl) benzene sulfonamide] (S1) record previously by many steps. Starting conversion the free amino group in an azo comp. to chloro acetamide derivative(S2), then reacted it with urea to give the oxazole ring&nbsp; derivative (S3) that which containing free amino group. The condensation reaction between the amino group and P-bromobenzaldehyde to produce Shiff base (B14). Finally staudinger's cyclo addition reaction go run between the Shiff base derivative (B14) and chloro acetyl chloride in the presence of tri ethyl amine (Et<sub>3</sub>N) as Base catalyst and dioxane as solvent at 5-10<sup>o</sup>C to give β-Lactam derivative (L14). Most of these derivatives were confirmed by "FT-IR, 1HNMR and CNMR" spectra.</strong></p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 EFFECT OF LOCAL HONEY PRODUCTION AREAS ON ITS CONTENT OF SOME HEAVY METALS 2022-01-09T16:32:07+00:00 Raafat A. Abu- Almaaly <p><strong>This study was conducted to estimate some heavy metals cadmium, lead, nickel and iron in 15 samples of Iraqi honey with 3 replicates for each sample which were collected from apiaries near potential contamination areas in five Iraqi governorates, including Baghdad, Karbala, Babylon, Diyala and Salah al-Din. The atomic absorption technique was used to estimate the concentrations of heavy metals, the results showed that there were significant differences at (P≤0.05) between the concentrations of these elements in the honey samples, the highest concentrations of cadmium 0.123 mg/kg were recorded in Baghdad, near the petrochemical production complex, lead 4.657 mg/kg and nickel 0.023 mg/kg in Babylon near the power plant, iron was 1.863 mg/kg in Karbala near the waste collection and incineration plant, and all the concentrations of cadmium and lead in the studied honey samples were higher than the acceptable limits set by the European Commission</strong><strong> Regulation</strong><strong>.</strong></p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 PHYSIO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES OF SOIL SELECTED FROM DIFFERENT AGRICULTURE AREAS FROM AL-NAJAF 2022-01-09T17:08:34+00:00 Safa M. Hameed1 Sahar A. Hussain2 Alaa J. Alkhakany3 <p><strong>The twelve samples of agricultural soils from four regions in Al-Najaf governorate with sampling plant with soil. Physical properties of the soil where studied, such as electrical conductivity ranged from (136.33-1070.00)μS/cm<sup>-3</sup>, and moisture which ranged between the values (0.39-36.48)%. The chemical analysis of the soil have included the proportion of calcium carbonate the ratio between (44.00-48.00%) has been observed increasing amounts of calcium carbonate in surface models. The pH where results indicate that pH values ​​were close to study models ranged between (6.88-7.42) these values ​​generally within the normal range for the measured pH values ​​of the Iraqi soil. The amount of gypsum ranged between the (1.36-4.32meq/100g) proportion of organic matter in the soils studied models was high compared with the percentage of which is supposed to good soils for plant growth and the extent of the proportion of organic matter between (3.31-30.22%). As well as the estimation of heavy metals in the soil, samples were arranging as follows: (Fe&gt; Cr&gt;Mn&gt; Zn&gt;Pb&gt; Cu&gt; Cd). As arranged in the plant as follows: Fe&gt;Mn&gt;Pb&gt; Zn&gt; Cr&gt; Cu&gt; Cd.</strong></p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 TO WHAT EXTENT THE APPLICATION OF MALCOLM BALDRIGE OF THE COMPREHENSIVE QUALITY STANDARDS IN THE AFTER- SALES SERVICES/ APPLIED RESEARCH IN ONE OF THE PRIVATE SECTOR COMPANIES 2022-01-25T08:00:10+00:00 Alaa N. Al-Heali Wisal A. Husain <p><strong>The aim of the research is to identify to what extent to which Malcolm </strong><strong>Baldrige</strong><strong> standards </strong><strong>of total quality are applied in the after-sales services of a private sector company for electrical appliances, from the point of view of administrative leaders, in it. To achieve this aim a questionnaire has been used to measure the degree of application of Malcolm’s seven criteria for total quality, namely: (leadership, strategic planning, focus on the customer, measurement and analysis and knowledge management, focus in human resource and operation management and results of the company’s management), the research found that the company achieved a good level of the standard from the degree of the standard in the award. The research recommends a comprehensive quality management system through the application of Malcolm's criteria for quality in the field of after sales services and selection of administrative leaderships that have experience in applying quality standards.</strong></p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 CHITOSAN EFFECT ON MEAT QUALITY IN LOCAL QUAILS MALE 2022-01-25T08:18:52+00:00 Fatima F. Jumaa Nadia N. A. Al-Hajo Ammar S. Abdulwahid Akeel A. Al- Mijbel <p><strong>The aim of this study is to know the effect of different percentages of chitosan added to drinking water on the weight and quality of quail meat, physical anatomy in terms of (the body of the long carcass, the girth of the chest, the length of the thigh bones, the thigh racket, the fullness of the chest), chemical analysis (protein, moisture, fat and ash) and sensory evaluation of quail meat. It was purchased 320 Iraqi-origin birds of quail and one day old. Chicks were randomly distributed to three equal groups' treatments and treated with chitosan and added to the drinking water: the first treatment (0.1 gm./L water only as a control treatment), the second treatment (0.2 gm./L of chitosan was added to the drinking water) and the third treatment (0.3 gm./L of chitosan was added to the drinking water).The results showed a significant difference (p≤ 0.05) between groups in carcass cutting, physical anatomy, measurement of carcass parts and chemical analysis, as well as a significant and clear improvement in the sensory characteristics of quail meat with a concentration of 0.2 gm./L chitosan. We conclude from this that adding low concentrations of chitosan to the drinking water of quail birds showed a significant difference in growth performance, meat quality, chemical composition, carcass weights and physical anatomy, as well as improving sensory characteristics and quality of quail meat.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong></p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 DETERMINATION OF CEFALAXIN IN PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATION BYMOLECULARY IMPRENTED POLYMER IN PVC MATRIX MEMBRANE 2022-01-25T10:03:36+00:00 Huda J. Hussein Yehya K. Al-Bayati <p><strong>This current study was built on creating four electrodes based on </strong><strong>molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). As the template using Cefalexin (CFX), 1-vinyl imidazole (VIZ) and vinyl acetate (VA) as monomer, and N, N-methylene bis acrylamide (MBAA) as cross-linkers and benzoyl peroxide as the initiator, two MIPs were prepared. The same composition was used in non-impressed polymers (NIPs) preparation, but without the template (Cefalexin). For the membranes preparation, numerous&nbsp;plasticizers, such&nbsp;as&nbsp;tri-oly&nbsp;phosphate&nbsp;(TOP) and di-octyl&nbsp;phthalate&nbsp;(DOP), were used in the PVC matrix, slop, detection limit, lifetime, and linearity range of CFX-MIPs electrodes are characteristics&nbsp;&nbsp; studied.&nbsp; To describe the created MIP, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the properties of the electrodes, the slope, the detection limit, and the life time and linearity range. The effect of PH and interference on the efficiency of the electrode MIP was also investigated. </strong><strong>The study has shown that the molecularly imprinted electrodes have high sensitivity and responsiveness to cefalaxin. The DPV value was linearly dependence on the aspirin concentration and a linear curve was obtained within the range of (</strong><strong>1×10−1 - 5×10-4</strong><strong>) M of cefalaxin with correlation coefficients are </strong><strong>about (</strong><strong>0.9941, 0.9899, 0.9936 and 0.9837) with slops value of </strong><strong>(-18.48, -18.84, -18.60 and -19.47</strong><strong>) and the detection limit for all electrodes ranging from (</strong><strong>6×10-1-9×10-</strong><strong>1) M.</strong><strong>In the selectivity measurements results that we obtained there's no interaction with the cefalexin drug on interfering cations (K+, Ca+2, Al+3) and certain pharmaceutical additives such as methylparaben, propylparaben and trisodium citrate. The preparation electrodes have been shown good response including testing pharmaceutical analysis.The strategy employed is easy and fast. CFX membranes also have a short reaction speed, excellent mechanical stability, are removable and quick to create. </strong></p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 THE SUSTANABLE MARKETING IMMUNITY OF TOURIST OF BUSINESS IN LIGHT OF THE PANDEMIC-CORONA (COVID-19) AN APPLIED RESEARCH IN TRAVEL AND TOURISM COMPANIES IN BAGHDAD 2022-01-26T05:20:00+00:00 Salim H. Salim <p><strong>The research aims to how to deal with certain situation to ensure the continuous competitive excellence of business market under the situation of covid-19, especially how to deal with major challenges, identifying the capabilities of tourism industry, investigating the ability of tourism agencies to resist the dynamic change of both internal as well as external environment to ensure their sustainability. </strong></p> <p><strong>The important here as the paper notice, is how to be efficient and trying to find solutions in order to grow and survive through choosing certain strategies that aligned the critical issues. </strong></p> <p><strong>Thus to achieve this level, many scenarios planed that could adopt in case of such pandemic crises like (covid-19); certain techniques and methods drawn to re-engineer the process of tourism industry to ensure the sustain and sustain and survive. Tourism industry, like any other industries which affected either positively by unstable circumstances. </strong></p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0